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수사학의 세가지 설득의 수단 - Ethos, Pathos, Logos
박희춘 목사  (Homepage) 2018-03-18 21:53:24, 조회 : 2,176, 추천 : 308

수사학에 있어서 또 다시 중요한 세가지의 설득수단은 에토스, 파토스, 로고스입니다.

수사학은 설득인데 그 설득을 어떤 도구로 하느냐 하는것입니다.
한 주제와 생각을 가지고 청중을 설득하려고 할때 이 세가지의 설득의 도구, 설득의 수단을 가지고
수사학적 연설이나, 설교를 작성하는 것입니다. 이 세가지의 수사학의 설득의 수단은
아리스토텔레스의 저서 -수사학 On Rhetoric -에서 처음으로 논의되었습니다.
이 세가지 설득의 수단을 이해하는데 있어서도 학자들에 따라 차이가 있지만
예를 들어 에토스가 과연 무엇을 아리스토텔레스는 말하는가하는 것입니다. 화자의 윤리성인가
아니면 연설문에 청중을 향한 윤리적 요소인가 하는 질문들입니다. 저는 둘다라고 생각합니다.
아래에 이 세가지의 설득의 수단에 대한 소개를 다양한 학자들에 의해 소개합니다.

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Three Rhetorical Appeals -  ethos, pathos, logos

Of the modes of persuasion furnished by the spoken word there are three kinds. The first kind depends on the personal character of the speaker [ethos]; the second on putting the audience into a certain frame of mind [pathos]; the third on the proof, or apparent proof, provided by the words of the speech itself [logos]. Persuasion is achieved by the speaker’s personal character when the speech is so spoken as to make us think him credible.

   –Aristotle 1356a 2,3

--Aristotle, On Rhetoric, 1356b (trans. George A. Kennedy)

In other words, Aristotle argues that there are three elements to the art of persuasion:

ethos: The rhetor is perceived by the audience as credible (or not).

pathos: The rhetor attempts to persuade the audience by making them feel certain emotions.

logos: The rhetor attempts to persuade the audience by the use of arguments that they will perceive as logical.

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Ethos

The mode of persuasion “Ethos” deals with the character of the speaker. The intent of the speaker is to appear credible. According to Aristotle there are three prequisites that are necessary to appear credible:

Competence
Good Intention
Empathy

Ethos is portrayed during the performance (actio). Originally, actio encompassed voice, gesture, facial expressions, proxemics, body language and movement. Later this was seperated in actio and pronuntiatio, whereas the first is about the bodily eloquence and the second the actual vocal lecture.

The ethos of the speaker is transmitted via his self-portrayal, this mostly about nonverbal and paraverbal (vocal elements – tone, pitch, etc. ) factors. If the speaker uses certain aspect consciously or unconsciously is usually irrelevant for the analysis, since the result and not the intention is the aim of a rhetorical analysis. Thus, there is no general “good” or “bad” in self-portrayal and impression management, cause each action must be interpreted in the proper context of the situation/speech. As a result the words “functional” and “dysfunctional” are more appropriate, when it comes down to analysing once performance.

The influencing factors for ethos encompass elements such as clothes, vocabulary, slang and other social aspects like rank, popularity, etc. These factors effect – according to the situation – the appearance and reception of the speaker. Additionally, the speaker can use statements to position himself, he can reveal social hierarchies, also he can show preferences and distastes, etc.

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Pathos

Pathos encompasses the emotional influence on the audience. The goal of each speech is to persuade the audience, therefore it is necessary to put the audience in the appropriate emotional states. Aristotle noted that is of importance that each speaker knew, which emotions exists, how and under which circumstances the can be elicited:

The Emotions are all those feelings that so change men as to affect their judgements, and that are also attended by pain or pleasure. Such are anger, pity, fear and the like, with their opposites. We must arrange what we have to say about each of them under three heads. Take, for instance, the emotion of anger: here we must discover (1) what the state of mind of angry people is, (2) who the people are with whom they usually get angry, and (3) on what grounds they get angry with them.
   –Aristotle 1378a 1,9

The public speaker has several possibilities to elicit emotions in the audience. Yet, it is crucial that there is a basic knowledge about the audience. Typical high emotional topics are value and belief systems, since these topics can vary from audience to audience, it is crucial to know the audience. There are also certain techniques and presentation styles that create or enhance emotions, which reduces the ability of the audience to be critical. Take as an example the technique of storytelling, people react and absorb stories differently than an university lecture style speech.

The aim of pathos is to reduce the audience’s ability to judge. One possibility to achieve this is due to the correct use of figures of speech. These figures can be used to put certain content and arguments in fore- or background. This allows the speaker to increase the effectiveness of the delivery, by either underlining the strong parts or minimize the weak parts.

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Logos

Logos is the appeal towards logical reason, thus the speaker wants to present an argument that appears to be sound to the audience. It encompasses the content and arguments of the speech. Like ethos and pathos the aim is to create an persuasive effect, thus the apparent is sufficient:

Thirdly, persuasion is effected through the speech itself when we have proved a truth or an apparent truth by means of the persuasive arguments suitable to the case in question.
   –Aristotle 1356a 2,3

For the argumentation the arguments, argument schemes, the different forms of proof and the reasoning are of special interest. There are two different forms of proofs: the natural and the artificial/technical proof. Natural proofs are those that are based on given data like documents, testimonies, etc. The artificial/technical proof are those that are created with combination of information (hints, examples, etc.) and the art of logic.

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from Wikipedia -

Ethos

Ethos (plural: ethea) is an appeal to the authority or credibility of the presenter. It is how well the presenter convinces the audience that the presenter is qualified to speak on the subject. This can be done by:

-Being a notable figure in the field in question, such as a college professor or an executive of a company whose business is related to the presenter's topic

-Demonstrating mastery of the terminology of the field

-Being introduced by or producing bona fides from other established authorities

Pathos

Pathos (plural: pathea) is an appeal to the audience’s emotions. The terms sympathy, pathetic, and empathy are derived from it. It can be in the form of metaphor, simile, a passionate delivery, or even a simple claim that a matter is unjust. Pathos can be particularly powerful if used well, but most speeches do not solely rely on pathos. Pathos is most effective when the author or speaker demonstrates agreement with an underlying value of the reader or listener.

In addition, the speaker may use pathos and fear to sway the audience. Pathos may also include appeals to audience imagination and hopes; done when the speaker paints a scenario of positive future results of following the course of action proposed.

In some cases, downplaying the ethos can be done while emphasizing pathos, for example as William Jennings Bryan did in his Cross of Gold speech:

I would be presumptuous, indeed, to present myself against the distinguished gentlemen to whom you have listened if this were but a measuring of ability; but this is not a contest among persons. The humblest citizen in all the land when clad in the armor of a righteous cause is stronger than all the whole hosts of error that they can bring. I come to speak to you in defense of a cause as holy as the cause of liberty—the cause of humanity.

Logos

Logos (plural: logoi) is logical appeal or the simulation of it, and the term logic is derived from it. It is normally used to describe facts and figures that support the speaker's claims or thesis. Having a logos appeal also enhances ethos because information makes the speaker look knowledgeable and prepared to his or her audience. However, the data can be confusing and thus confuse the audience. Logos can also be misleading or inaccurate, however meaningful it may seem to the subject at hand. In some cases, inaccurate, falsified, or miscontextualized data can even be used to enact a pathos effect. Such is the case with casualty numbers, which, while not necessarily falsified, may include minor casualties (injuries) that are equated with deaths in the mind of an audience and therefore can evoke the same effect as a death toll.



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